Gardena, CA – January 3, 2020 – MILESTAR, a leader of high value performance tires is pleased to announce an all-new 30-Day Ride Guarantee and Road Hazard Protection program on select Milestar tires. These programs are intended to provide piece-of-mind to the consumer during their tire buying decision. It also provides more support for the dealers as the tire purchasing becomes more challenging with so many brands out in the marketplace. This ride guarantee is designed to provide a 30-day, hassle-free, trial period to test the product. If a consumer is not 100% satisfied with their tire purchase, they can return them to the original place of purchase with an original sales receipt. Customers will have the opportunity to purchase a new set of tires of equal or lesser value from the original place of purchase, completely hassle-free. The Road Hazard Protection program offers a free tire replacement through an authorized Milestar dealer should a tire become damaged due to cuts, punctures, snags, bruises, tears, or impact breaks within the first 12-months from the tire’s purchase date or first 2/32nd wear from the original tread depth, whichever comes first. Milestar Tires stands committed to excellence and expanding programs to support both the dealer and their customers. Both the 30-DAY RIDE GUARANTEE and ROAD HAZARD PROTECTION will begin in January of 2020, and will include the MS932 Sport, MS932XP+, Weatherguard AW365, Patagonia H/T, and Patagonia A/T R.
“We believe in the our tire technology and manufacturing quality so much so, that we are backing them with programs to support consumer confidence,” stated Andrew Hoit, Tireco’s Vice President of Sales and Marketing. “It is our pledge to our dealers
Gardena, CA – January 3, 2020 MILESTAR, a leader of high value performance tires is pleased to announce an all-new 30-Day Ride Guarantee and Road Hazard Protection program on select Milestar tires. These programs are intended to provide piece-of-mind to the consumer during their tire buying decision. It also provides more support for the dealers as the tire purchasing becomes more challenging with so many brands out in the marketplace.
This ride guarantee is designed to provide a 30-day, hassle-free, trial period to test the product. If a consumer is not 100% satisfied with their tire purchase, they can return them to the original place of purchase with an original sales receipt. Customers will have the opportunity to purchase a new set of tires of equal or lesser value from the original place of purchase, completely hassle-free.
The Road Hazard Protection program offers a free tire replacement through an authorized Milestar dealer should a tire become damaged due to cuts, punctures, snags, bruises, tears, or impact breaks within the first 12-months from the tire’s purchase date or first 2/32nd wear from the original tread depth, whichever comes first. Milestar Tires stands committed to excellence and expanding programs to support both the dealer and their customers.
“We believe in the our tire technology and manufacturing quality so much so, that we are backing them with programs to support consumer confidence,” stated Andrew Hoit, Tireco’s Vice President of Sales and Marketing. “It is our pledge to our dealers.”
Gardena, CA – November 5, 2019 – MILESTAR, a leader of high value performance tires is pleased to announce 12 expansion sizes for PATAGONIA X/T Xtreme all-terrain tire to include 40X13.5R17LT high flotation. The X/T is a modern, refined light truck tire designed to deliver the bold aggressive looks and tough off-road performance normally found in an M/T tire, yet still providing the smooth quiet on-road manners associated with an all-terrain tire.
The PATAGONIA X/T’s Rugged Tread Blocks feature step-down supports on the center blocks to provide enhanced stability and handling.All sizes feature a 3-Ply Sidewall for added strength and durability, and a silica-infused cut and chip resistant tread compound, to work with stone and mud ejectors to tackle the roughest and toughest off-road conditions.Additionally, select sizes are offered with an F load rating to allow for higher load carrying capacity ideal for today’s ¾ Ton and 1 Ton truck applications.
The X/T is engineered and designed for a quieter ride utilizing a variable Pitch Tread Pattern, while the Variable Depth Siping provides performance consistency throughout the entire life of the tire.A total of 19 sizes will be available in Q1 2020 with another 29 sizes coming in late 2020.All sizes of the PATAGONIA X/T feature 18/32” tread depth and are backed with a 40K Mile Limited Warranty.
“This expansion includes aggressive flotation, plus-sized fitments to stay competitive in the Jeep®, light truck and off-road markets,” stated Andrew Hoit, Tireco’s Vice President of Sales and Marketing. “Sizes like the 35”, 37”, and 40” show our commitment to these markets and the continued growth and expansion of the entire Patagonia Family of light truck and SUV tires.”
Many will insist that the brake pads are the simplest part of the brake system. They are very, very wrong. Their creation and the material they use to create friction against the brake or drum surface is very complicated. Let’s talk about brake pads and friction materials.
The friction material of the pads and shoes are mixed with their adhesive prior to being flowed into a mold with the backing plates made of steel. They are then pressed to their friction material shape before getting sent to an oven. They are then baked to very high temperatures with their compound and adhesive. This bonds the backing plate and friction material together in the modern brake pad and shoe. Prior to this, the friction material was pressed into a mold and with openings for rivets, which fastened them to their backing plates.
Now that’s out of the way, we can go into the simplest and, quite honestly, one of the most dramatic changes you can make to your brake system without changing your calipers to something more expensive—your brake pad and shoe compounds. To do that, we need to talk about the friction compounds between the most popular types.
Semi-Metallic Brake Compound
Semi-metallic, also mistakenly called “metallic”, brake pads are about 30 to 60-percent metal with other synthetic compound mixtures within the friction material. It is a very good material to look for if you do a lot of braking or very heavy braking like you would on a track day. However, because of the amount of metal in the friction material, it can be harsh on rotors. These may not perform well in very cold temperatures as well as they won’t put out enough friction to make any heat and won’t bite. At least initially, once you use the brakes several times, they will begin to generate heat and work as they were intended.
Organic Brake Compound
“Organic” pads are made of materials such as fiber, chopped glass, mineral fibers, and even Kevlar mixtures. Organic pads are usually low-dust, low-noise, and are generally better on the rotors, but they do tend to wear out fast. They are also not good for brake environments that see a lot of heat because of their organic materials. Those materials ablate away as you increase the heat and use the brakes more and more.
You’ll usually see these advertised as a “low-cost” or “economy option” brake pad as they are inexpensive to produce over semi-metallic, low-metallic, and ceramic pads. However, because of their compound, they are good in low brake temperature environments where the brakes aren’t used that often.
Low-Metallic Brake Compound
The low-metallic pads you see on the market are called so because they don’t contain as much steel as semi-metallic pads. Sometimes no steel at all and those contain a lot of the same mixtures as organic pads. However, they perform better because they are mixed with more copper or other types of softer metals. So, these pads will be a little noisier compared to full-organic, but not as much as semi-metallic.
Many will insist that the brake pads are the simplest part of the brake system. They are very, very wrong.
They are also not as harsh on rotors as semi-metallic pads are but again will wear the rotors faster than organic pads. These are, as you can probably guess, in between when it comes to brake temperature environments. They work far better at low brake temperatures than semi-metallic and can stand higher temperatures than organic pads, but that does depend on the material mixture.
Ceramic Brake Compound
The ceramic brake pad and is one that uses ceramic compounds along with some other metals like copper in its mixture. They provide the lowest dust and noise and have the lowest wear on the brake rotors. While they can take higher temperatures, they are not a desirable choice for a high-performance option. Reason being is that they don’t get rid of heat as well as metallic-based friction materials.
These are the best choice for the show car that sees street duty and wants decent braking performance. However, there are also new ceramic compounds coming out of Germany that do feature more metal in their mixtures. This means that show and performance drivers can have their cake and eat it, too. This idea of a true high-performance ceramic brake pad is coming down the line.
Full Metallic and Exotic Brake Compounds
Finally, there is the true metallic brake pad compound, usually found in racing brakes. They are made of sintered metals with little to near zero synthetic materials in the friction lining. They have a very high fade resistance and very high-temperature tolerances.
This also means they are noisy and are very harsh on rotors as well as require a higher temperature to begin to operate properly. There are also exotic material brakes made from carbon fiber, however, these types of rotors need to generate high-temperatures to operate and are best suited for harsh race track environments.
Shapes and Design Features of the Friction
Brake pads come in many shapes for many reasons. While caliper and packaging design plays a significant role, it’s not the only reason.
A common design among street brake pads is the chamfer, an angled cut seen at the ends of the brake pad friction material. However, there are several ways a chamfer is done. This is designed to prevent high-vibration areas around the edges of the brake pads when they contact the rotor.
This reduces the noise and vibrations you can feel while stopping when compared to a brake pad without the chamfer. A pad with a straight edge design on the braking area usually causes a high pitch squeal from a phenomenon called “tip drag”.
…one of the most dramatic changes you can make to your brake system without changing your calipers to something more expensive—your brake pad and shoe compounds.
As the piston of your caliper begins to push the brake pads into the rotor, the pads begin to bend and fluctuate. This happens in microns of an inch but can create the high-frequency squeal as the pad tips bounce against the rotor. This bouncing can create glazing on the rotors and even increase rotor wear.
A straighter edge has the tendency to bounce and grab more than chamfered edges which can lead to noise and can cause pad lift. Pad lift is where the friction material lifts off the backing plate and this can cause moisture to build up, leading to de-bonding from corrosion, corrosion of the backing plate, and brake pad failure.
Cuts in the Pad Materials
The center cut on the brake pad friction that you see in this picture is designed for three reasons: flexibility, cooling and venting. Even with the chamfer, the pads will still move and bend on their backing plates. If a solid piece of friction material is used on a pad that moves quite a bit, it can lead to chunking of the friction and even full pad failure. The slot also helps the hot gasses that build up to vent out and help prevent the pads from overheating in normal cases.
This same venting will allow the incandescent material, the unburnable debris from pad wear and road pickup, that builds up as your pads and rotors wear to vent out and away from the rotor and pad for optimal braking performance. In some cases, pads can have more than one cut for the same reasons. It all depends on the design requirements of the caliper and backing plate interaction and venting requirements.
Now that you see the complication involved with brake pad friction, that’s got to leave you wondering about rotors and their design, right?
I first saw “Big Daddy” Don Garlits race in England at Blackbushe Airport, west of London, in 1964. By then, Gar’, as he is often called, was already famous having begun racing in 1950. In 1959, he traveled west from his home in Tampa, Florida, to race at the 1959 Bakersfield Fuel and Gas Championships. He was not popular and whenever they moved his infamous “Swamp Rat” dragster it had to be pushed through a field of empty beer cans.
“It got so bad,” said Garlits, “that one of us had to walk in front of the car as we pushed it through the pits, to kick a path through the empties.” Unfortunately, for him, Garlits did not win but he learned a lot and came back in ’65 with three cars, two of which raced in the final that Don won against teammate Marvin Swartz.
Garlits continued to win race after race, but it was in 1970 while running at Lions Drag Strip that he would unwittingly cause a racing revolution.
One of us had to walk in front of the car as we pushed it through the pits, to kick a path through the empties.
While driving Swamp Rat 13, his home-built, two-speed transmission exploded and severed his foot in half. Shaken, Garlits came back the following year with a new rear-engine dragster that changed the look of drag racing forever.
In 1976, Garlits made another trip to the U.K. and while there came to the realization that the U.S. needed it’s own drag racing museum. Consequently, Don and his late wife Pat founded the “Big Daddy” Don Garlits Museum of Drag Racing and in 1984 opened the original 25,000 square foot facility in Ocala, Florida, just off Interstate 75.
Over the years, Don has added to the facility that now tops 50,000 square feet and even that is nowhere near enough as the place is jammed to the walls with not only Don’s cars and memorabilia but around 200 other cars and related artifacts. Note some are housed in an adjacent building called the Museum of Classic Cars.
To be honest, it’s a bit much to take in on one visit; you really need several visits to see everything. Obviously, it’s great to see so many of Garlits’ Swamp Rat dragsters but some of my personal favorites include Ed “Big Daddy” Roth’s “Yellow Fang” dragster that was driven by George Schreiber; Red Greth’s “Speed Sport Special”, Jocko Johnson’s “Jocko’s Porting Service” streamliner, Dean Moon’s Moonbeam Devin sports car and the Mooneyes dragster, and the Mooneyham & Sharp 554 Fuel Coupe.
Finally, and sadly pushed into a corner was Jim Lytle’s “Big Al” an Allison V-12-powered ’34 Tudor sedan chopped to the point that it had slits for windows and the driver’s head poked out through a hole in the roof. Those were the days when drag racing was wild and unpredictable and racers experimented with the unconventional.
“Big Daddy” Don Garlits Museum of Drag Racing is open every day except Thanksgiving and Christmas Day from 9 am until 5 pm. Parking is free and admission is $20 for adults, $15 for seniors (60+) military, veterans, college students and teenagers (15-18) and, $10 for children (5-12).
As for Don, whose personal best was 318.54 mph in 4.76 seconds in 2002, you might bump into him working on one of his projects that includes an electric dragster that might just change the sport again—he’s done it before.
“Come on,” you’re probably thinking, “those rotors are just big slugs of metal cut to fit my car.” Nope, rotors are another very complicated part of your brake system. However, there is a huge misconception on how they should be designed. Those cross-drilled rotors you have are pretty much junk.
How Are Rotors Made?
Rotors are typically made of cast iron known as grey iron—a type of cast iron with graphite in the mixture and sometimes other compounds such as copper, silicon, or other materials that bond with iron. Early front disc brakes and many rear brakes today are a solid disc. However, these discs can have trouble with dissipating heat fast enough. This is where the invention of the vented disc brake came in to fix that issue.
Both types of discs are molded, but vented discs are done in a procedure known as sand casting. The veins of the vented rotor are made of a separate sand core. It’s placed between the cope (top portion of a mold) and drag (bottom portion of the mold) and the metal flows into the mold.
Those cross-drilled rotors you have are pretty much junk.
Once the metal cools, the core is removed by hammering it out, using air, or various other methods of removal depending on how the sand cast was made and bound. After that, the rotor is then machined for vehicle fitment before final surface finishing and coating—if a coating is being applied, that is. Drums are usually made in a very similar way with molds.
Rotor faces come in four distinct types: solid, slotted, cross-drilled, or slotted and drilled. How does each of those work and what are the advantages of each? We answer that in this rotor article.
Solid Face Rotors
A solid face rotor will be the most rigid and can dissipate heat very well. It can take a little more abuse and can also be resurfaced easily from “warping”. It’s the simplest design that all OEs take advantage of because it doesn’t require extra machining or complex work to build or mold it. While it’s simple, it’s still very effective in most high-performance brake systems where pad gassing and debris clearing isn’t an issue.
Slotted Face Rotors
A slotted faced rotor is designed to keep some of the rigidity and heat dissipation of the solid rotor but create a space for gasses and incandescent materials to be wiped away from the friction lining. Gasses come from the natural breakdown of the adhesive that holds the brake friction to the brake pad as it heats up from use. This gassing creates a bearing surface, like how an air gap works, and creates a form of brake fade because the gasses can’t be compressed. The slots transfer those gasses away from the friction and rotor surface along with the incandescent materials to improve braking performance in high-performance applications. A street car normally won’t see this, but if you track yours then you will and is why a slotted rotor is an excellent choice.
A cross drilled rotor has holes drilled straight across each rotor face that also feature chamfered edges to reduce hot spots at those drill points. This design is for maximum degassing as the venting of the rotor helps pull those gasses away from the rotor surface. The problem you start to encounter with a cross drilled rotor is the reduction of surface area for cooling. This can cause heat stress cracks at the drill points and a loss of rigidity overall for the rotor.
With modern adhesives and pad construction, the requirement of a cross drilled rotor has been reduced to the point that they aren’t used that often. This includes professional motorsports. The exception is environments where having high rotor surface temperatures are needed for brake pad friction effectiveness or where the rotating material just needs to be removed. In other words, you don’t need a cross drilled rotor on your daily driver. The brake temperatures won’t be high enough for pad degassing and the pads you are using don’t need that much temperature to operate.
Slotted and Drilled Rotors
The combination of slotted and drilled seeks to gain the advantages of both: the maximum degassing of a cross drilled rotor and the wiping of the friction surface of the slotted rotor while also retaining some of the rigidity from the slotted rotor design. However, if you’re not experiencing any degassing issues with solid rotors, you’re not gaining much in terms of performance from switching to either version. You’ll also lose surface area that helps with cooling your brake rotors.
…if you’re thinking about getting those drilled or slotted rotors, you may want to reconsider.
Both a slotted and cross drilled rotor will be slightly lighter, but only by a few grams at best. Unless you’re in a Formula Car or maximized the reduction of the weight of your tires and wheels, losing weight at the rotor isn’t going to be of much use to you. It can be detrimental if you don’t buy a high-quality slotted or drilled rotor.
Losing Weight with a Two-Piece Rotor
However, if you want the maximum rigidity but want to reduce weight, you should consider a two-piece rotor with an aluminum hat, as you see here. The aluminum hat reduces the weight of the rotor significantly since that large mass of metal is of a lighter material. You also gain the ability to change rotor faces and material without changing the rotor hats and this type of hat can allow you to work with a custom design by just changing the hat instead of the whole rotor. This does come at a price increase over a solid hat and rotor but if you’re going for maximum lightness, the price usually isn’t a concern at that point.
How a Rotor Cools
Again, rotors come in solid disc or vented disc, with most front rotors being vented. The venting design is a centrifugal (radial) fan type, where—in the simplest terms—the blades create a low-pressure area on the outside of the rotor as it rotates. The high-pressure area between the blades flows in to fill in that low-pressure area, which then creates a low-pressure area behind that to pull in more air. Again, that’s oversimplifying it. Changing the angle of the blades can increase efficacy but will make the rotors directional. There are also multi-blade designs that direct airflow for better hot spot cooling.
So, if you’re thinking about getting those drilled or slotted rotors, you may want to reconsider. If you’re simply going for the looks, we can’t argue against it. If you’re going for performance, consider staying with a solid face rotor and finding other ways to either reduce rotational weight or brake cooling.
Scotts Valley is a small city of 11,000 people six miles north of Santa Cruz, California, and to the south of what is now known as Silicon Valley. Of course, that term was barely in general use when Bruce Canepa opened his first business in 1982.
Bruce’s family owned a Ford dealership in the beach/college town of Santa Cruz where he learned all things mechanical and cut his driving teeth on a Model A Ford circa 1963. He began racing as soon as he was able driving quarter midgets and Go-Karts before progressing to super modifieds and sprint cars.
He tried it all and excelled at most and was awarded consecutive “Rookie of the Year” and “Most Improved Driver” in three different race categories: Sportsman, Modified, and Sprint Cars.
In 1978, he moved into racing sports cars in both the IMSA and Trans-Am series and in 1979 formed his own team to campaign a Porsche 934 at the grueling Daytona 24 hour sports car race. Teamed with Rick Mears and Monte Shelton, they finished an incredible third overall.
The Porsche factory was so impressed by the privateering effort, they provided him a brand new 935 for the rest of that season thus cementing Bruce’s continuing passion and loyalty to the brand.
He tried it all and excelled at most…
In 1980 and ’81, Bruce returned to Daytona with Gianpiero Moretti in the famous MOMO team Porsche 935. They also raced at Mid Ohio and Riverside. Bruce tried his hand at the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb with his own design twin-turbo-powered open wheeler—he qualified first and finished an amazing second overall.
The following year, he was back at Daytona teamed with Bobby Rahal and Jim Trueman in the very first March GTP “Ground Effects” Prototype. He also opened Bruce Canepa Motorcars handling Audi, BMW, Lamborghini, Maserati and of course, Porsche automobiles.
Bruce has always been good at seeing a niche in the market and in ’82 he opened Canepa Design. The following year he began redesigning Kenworth big rigs that led, in 1985, to his purchase of Concept Transporters. That year he also drove the Eletrodyne Lola T600 at the Riverside 6 Hours.
With Group B rallying dominating the European racing scene in the mid-eighties, Porsche introduced the phenomenal 959 in 1986. It was quickly and rightly regarded as the ultimate sports car, however, the car was not legal to import into the U.S.
Enamored of the 959, Bruce and perhaps even Microsoft’s Bill Gates worked at enabling the car to be legally imported. Meanwhile, the American scene was all about SUVs and Chevy/GMC trucks and Canepa subsequently built more than 1,500 custom vehicles to Bruce’s design.
After ten years of working on the legalization of the 959, Bruce was finally able to deliver the first Canepa 959 in 2000 and the first California-compliant version in 2003. Despite all this work, Bruce continued to race and returned to Colorado’s Pikes Peak setting the course record for tandem-axle big rigs in 2000, 2001, and in 2002 he crossed the line in 13:57.800—a record that still stands on the 156-turn, 12.42-mile mountain course.
Racing oil runs in his veins and his current ride of choice is a McLaren P1 GTR.
Canepa moved into his current 70,000 sq. ft. Scotts Valley facility in 2006 and for any petrolhead, it’s Nirvana and showcases some of the raddest cars in Petroldom. There is so much to see that we asked Bruce to choose his Top 10 from all the cars on display and they are presented here: everything from the famed So-Cal Speed Shop Coupe that ran both at Bonneville and the drags in the very early fifties to the Porsche 917/10 of 1972 and the 1985 Rothmans Porsche 962C. It’s an amazing to-die-for, must-see collection.
Canepa is not just a showroom though, or even a museum, its also houses one of the world’s most respected restoration shops that not only meticulously restores historic racecars but also offers setup and race support, meanwhile, Bruce still does all the final testing. Well, he would wouldn’t he? Racing oil runs in his veins and his current ride of choice is a McLaren P1 GTR.
Let’s face it, the weather out on the West Coast is awesome. The conditions are more or less predictable, the climate is almost always in the ’70s and sunny, and it’s generally easy to prepare for changes in conditions if, say, you travel up to Tahoe for some skiing.
But for those of us that live virtually anywhere else, Mother Nature chooses to be comparatively more cruel with her distribution of weather conditions. Those of us residing in the Midwest and on the East Coast, as surely you already know, experience seasons; actual changes in temperature and conditions from winter to summer and vice-versa.
Whether you’re an automotive novice or expert, you know that tires are your vehicle’s direct line of contact to the road. Aside from monitoring your vehicle’s tire pressure, treadwear, etc., it’s essential that you also choose the right tire for the season and conditions you’re driving in. The circumferential grooves, tread blocks, lateral grooves, and even whether or not a tire is siped can have an impact on how a vehicle handles and brakes in both the wet and the dry.
For vehicles that are more performance-oriented, a performance or ultra-high performance tire isn’t necessarily more appropriate but will compliment your vehicle’s handling and braking abilities in dry conditions, while maintaining wider circumferential grooves to disperse water. These tires have a more intricate, aggressive tread pattern from the outboard to inboard shoulders, higher speed rating (H- or V-speed), and a softer compound, which tends to wear quicker than regular all-seasons.
The Milestar MS932 Sport and MS932 XP+ tires are great examples of this. Both are high-performance tires that feature optimized tread patterns along with wide circumferential ribs and grooves for improved grip and water dispersion. Compared to the MS70, which has both vertical and variable siping for inclement weather, the Sport features lateral siping while the XP+ features 3D, zig-zag siping, which are geared more for a performance grip. The XP+ has the addition of wider shoulder tread blocks for better handling and cornering.
When it comes to colder and wetter conditions though, the performance-oriented all-season tires aren’t as great. Their rubber compounds aren’t made for colder temperatures and the more aggressive tread patterns mentioned limit the vehicle’s ability to not only grip the road but also disperse precipitation when there is water or snow on the road.
…tires are your vehicle’s direct line of contact to the road.
In extreme cases, this could result in hydroplaning, which is essentially when water cannot effectively pass through a tire’s circumferential grooves causing the tire to ultimately lose contact with the road.
Condition Specific Tires: Winter And All-Terrain
When temperatures drop below 40 degrees or the terrain becomes rough, rocky, or muddy, an all-season tire isn’t going to cut it. Lower temperatures demand tires with specialized, temperature-specific rubber compounds for better grip, while inclement weather conditions and rougher terrain demand specialized tread patterns for better grip. That’s why winter and all-terrain tires exist.
A tire which has met the required performance criteria in snow testing (like the situations mentioned above) will be branded with a three-peak mountain snowflake (3PMS or 3PMSF) symbol on its sidewall. Traditionally, this designation was used only on winter-specific tires, but as of late, more all-seasons have been receiving the certification as well.
Both winter and all-terrain tires have wider, deeper circumferential grooves for maximum water dispersion along with siping. This is where siping, tiny straight or zig-zagged grooves within the tread blocks, really comes in handy. As the sipes come into contact with a surface, they aid the tread blocks with better grip.
In more extreme cases, adding studs to or wrapping them in chains might be necessary. These studs are small pieces of metal that can literally be installed into the tire’s tread and help the tire dig into ice and snow.
When temperatures drop below 40 degrees or the terrain becomes rough, rocky, or muddy, an all-season tire isn’t going to cut it.
Milestar’s Patagonia A/T W is an excellent example of a studdable tire, which has small indents throughout the tread for stud installation and is supplemented with segmented wishbone tread blocks and silica compound for better overall grip.
Similarly, wrapping a tire in specialized tire chains also helps a tire dig to ice and snow, but can be harmful to the pavement when ice or snow isn’t present. Consulting both your car’s user manual as well as with a tire shop is highly recommended if you choose to go for either of these options.
When it comes to all-terrain tires, their inboard and outboard shoulders are typically comprised of lugs—extra large “chunks” of tread—in addition to most standard tire components. The Milestar Patagonia M/T is a great visual example of this. It features high void, lugged tread for maximum traction on rough terrain.
With All That Being Said…
No matter which brand of tire you decide to purchase for your vehicle, it’s essential to choose the right one for it as it could potentially have a huge financial impact. Driving on a winter tire year-round, for example, will yield much quicker tread wear along with poor overall gas mileage. On the flip side, driving on an ultra-high performance tire in inclement weather puts you at a much higher risk of hydroplaning and even crashing.
“The choice is yours, and yours alone. Good luck!”
Your brakes are possibly one of the most important parts of your car or truck. However, it’s probably one of the least well known after the shocks. Let’s talk about the basic theory of your brakes and discuss what “warping” really is.
You need to stop or slow down for that next corner but letting off the gas won’t slow you enough in many cases. In those cases, you need to get on the binders. When you hit your brake pedal, fluid is sent from the brake master cylinder to your calipers and/or drum wheel cylinder to move a set of pads or shoes against a rotating surface.
Those pads and shoes are fitted with a friction material that clamps down on that surface to take kinetic energy, in our case that is wheel rotation. That then turns that kinetic energy into thermal energy from the friction between the friction material and the rotor or drum surface. This friction causes the wheel to slow until it is stopped.
Well, they don’t warp like a wet piece of board does.
While your tire’s traction will determine how effective your braking is, the coefficient of friction of the brake liner will determine how much bite the pads or shoes will have on the rotors or drums. That thermal energy is then radiated away by airflow over the surface area of the rotor or drum.
Discs or rotors of the disc brake system do an equal amount of the hot work of the brake system, but they also do more than just transfer heat. Their face designs help the pads do their job, but what about the issue of rotors “warping?” Well, they don’t warp like a wet piece of board does. What’s happening is that the pads are leaving some of their friction material on the rotor surface under harsh braking.
Notice that “warping” is in quotation marks here. Your rotors do not warp in the sense that wood warps when it gets wet. Instead, what’s happening is that the brake friction material is transferring unequally to the rotor face. This can happen because of unequal temperatures on the surface of the rotor, a hotter spot on the rotor will transfer more friction material onto the rotor surface than the colder spot.
…what’s happening is that the brake friction material is transferring unequally to the rotor face.
This creates an uneven surface that transfers into the brake calipers and creates the judder and vibrations associated with “brake warping.” When a technician resurfaces the rotor, they are removing that access material along with the rotor surface to create an even face again.
That’s not to say a brake rotor can’t warp, but if it does there’s a whole host of other problems going on and usually, the rotor will crack and break before that warping happens.
Now that we’ve covered that, how about those rotors or brake pads?
The technical storage or access is strictly necessary for the legitimate purpose of enabling the use of a specific service explicitly requested by the subscriber or user, or for the sole purpose of carrying out the transmission of a communication over an electronic communications network.
The technical storage or access is necessary for the legitimate purpose of storing preferences that are not requested by the subscriber or user.
The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for statistical purposes.The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for anonymous statistical purposes. Without a subpoena, voluntary compliance on the part of your Internet Service Provider, or additional records from a third party, information stored or retrieved for this purpose alone cannot usually be used to identify you.
The technical storage or access is required to create user profiles to send advertising, or to track the user on a website or across several websites for similar marketing purposes.